phys.orgEncrypted messages in biological processesRNA modifications can encrypt the RNA code and are responsible for a very sophisticated control of RNA function. A Danish-German research team has shown that modified RNA bases have a great impact on the dynamics of gene expression from DNA to functional RNA. The study yields important new insight into how the basis of RNA modifications can affect the function of mature RNA molecules.The genetic material, DNA, is located in the cell nucleus where gene expression is controlled. DNA is copied into the less stable RNA for translation into protein in the cytoplasm (mRNA or protein-coding RNA) or for mediating independent functions as non-coding RNA. RNA is processed through several maturation steps to ensure its proper expression and localization. One of these maturation steps is called splicing. The non-functional introns are excised from the newly made RNA in the splicing process to build a mature and functional RNA consisting of exons only.
science.sciencemag.orgChromatin domains rich in inheritanceEpigenetic phenomena are heritable changes to gene expression that occur without changes to the DNA sequence and that include posttranslational modifications (PTMs) to the histones that package DNA into chromatin. These PTMs are deposited on histones by enzymes in response to an “initiator,” ultimately altering chromatin structure and, accordingly, gene expression. In multicellular organisms, cellular identity is established by master regulators (initiators) that can activate or repress transcription through their sequence-specific DNA binding activity. The accurate transmission of distinct gene expression profiles during cell division is essential for preserving the properties of cell lineages. Thus, a key feature of the epigenetic process is that after the initiator subsides, these informative chromatin PTMs must be inherited by subsequent cell generations. Numerous histone PTMs can occur, but can they all convey epigenetic information? We discuss the few histone PTMs that qualify as epigenetic and the distinct features of the enzymes that deposit them that account for their epigenetic status.
businessinsider.comA blockbuster gene-editing tool has been 'linked' to cancer — here's how worried you should beHeadlines linking blockbuster gene-editing tool CRISPR to cancer sent stocks in companies trying to bring the technology to medicine tumbling. But scientists who study the technique say the concerns are overblown at best, and an incorrect interpretation of the science at worst.
health.10ztalk.comPatients With Renal Cancer Could Benefit From Genetic Testing ⋆ health.10ztalk.comGermline mutations in cancer-associated genes in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are more prevalent than previously reported. In addition, at least one third of patients harboring these mutations do not meet current referral criteria for genetic testing, but they and their families could benefit from such an approach, the researchers suggest. The findings …1
genealogyexplained.comDo Siblings Have the Same DNA? Genetics, Ancestry and Ethnicity ExplainedHow can full-siblings have different ethnicities when they have the same parents? There is a complex relationship between genetics, ancestry, and ethnicity. This article will dive into the science of how DNA is passed down from parents to children.1