Who invented the sci-fi space combat doctrine?
From Star Wars to Eve Online, many science fiction settings imagine that combat between spaceships follows a set of rules that resemble real-world naval combat: * There are a variety of ship sizes named after real-world naval roles (frigates, destroyers, capital ships, etc.), including small fighters launched from carriers * A well-prepared fleet includes a variety of these ship classes to leverage the advantages and disadvantages of each class * Larger ships are less maneuverable, relying on turret-mounted weapons, while smaller ships may be agile enough to evade those turrets and employ fixed-direction weapons * Ships employ a mixture of bullet-like weapons, guided missiles, and (in some sci-fi) "energy" weapons that may look like beams or bolts Of course, there are also sci-fi settings that imagine very different sorts of space combat that break all these rules, but this naval-like model is so widespread it can feel like the default choice for sci-fi these days. Star Wars is the earliest example I know of that used this concept of spaceship combat, but did it originate these ideas? If not, who did? Even when the sci-fi setting as a whole is not intended to be "hard" sci-fi, the "realism" of space combat seems to be important. Star Wars has magic-wielding monks, but its spaceship combat is less fanciful. Do we know why "realistic" space combat became so important to the genre?