If aliens are real, their biology suggest they are likely from our own ocean. Here me out.* Grey very smooth, leathry oil skin. Much similar to that of dolphins. https://www.thecut.com/2020/09/dolphin-skin-care-routine.html * Large black eyes, They descriptions are almost idental to that of seals eyes. https://www.catersnews.com/stories/animals/seal-of-approval-adorable-seal-pup-waves-at-photographer/ * Large head, and small body, Unsuitable for land base mobilsation. When in water these features would be less of a hindence. Head would be a huge draw back on land. * Very high center of gravity. Again, making water based their medium more compelling. * Very big head and brain. Dolphins have the biggest brain to body ratio. * small nose and Small sinus area, and smalll thorax. Suggesting a adapting to high pressure deep sea environments, and no need to humidify air. * small limbs, . Also small muscles would mean an ability to stay unwater for a long time. Also could be a trade off against there large brains, as big brains take alot of energy. * Reports of lagre hands and feet and even webbing. Much like flippers. More rational to support local based water environments. * Its highly unlikely that a beings would travel thousands of years accross space to say one thing a leave. * Much more likely to send unmanned vehicles, probably self replicating drones. * Its highly unlikely the body could sustain travel at the speed. * We know more about the moon that the oceans. If you ask a biologist to design a intellegent species for underwater, they would look much like our greys.
Weird and Wonderful: This spectacular deep-sea siphonophore is a sight to seeWe’ve discovered a rainbow of siphonophores in the depths of Monterey Bay and beyond, like this stunningly scarlet species, Marrus claudanielis, described by MBARI researchers and their collaborators in 2005. The scientific name honors the husband-and-wife team Claude and Danièle Carré for their contributions to our understanding of siphonophore biology. Siphonophores (pronounced “sigh-fawn-oh-fours”) are colonial creatures made up of specialized segments that work together as one. Scientists have described some 175 siphonophore species. Most follow a similar body plan—a gas-filled float provides buoyancy, swimming bells propel the colony, and a central stem bears specialized parts for feeding, defense, and reproduction. Siphonophores are some of the longest animals in the world, with the giant siphonophore estimated to get up to 40 meters (132 feet) long, but only as big around as a broomstick. They capture prey with a curtain of stinging cells, allowing them to consume organisms much beefier than they are. Like most other siphonophores, Marrus claudanielis lives far from the seafloor, calling the endless expanse of open sea and midwater their home. They are ethereal and delicate organisms, readily jettisoning body parts when threatened. The cast-off swimming bells are bioluminescent and likely function to confuse predators, but this trait also makes them particularly challenging to study. Thankfully, MBARI’s remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) give scientists the opportunity to get a close-up look at deep-sea siphonophores without damaging them. Our skilled pilots carefully maneuver the ROV to record stunning video of these delicate drifters. These observations complement specimens we gingerly collect with samplers on the submersible. MBARI researchers and collaborators described Marrus claudanielis from specimens collected by ROVs off California and New Jersey. With observations off both coasts of North America, this species is likely widely distributed, but has simply eluded scientists. Although the deep sea is the largest environment on Earth, we’ve only explored a miniscule fraction of these midnight waters. Who knows what other fascinating discoveries linger in the darkness waiting to be found? Scientific name: Marrus claudanielis (Dunn et al., 2005) Size: Total length about 30 centimeters (12 inches) Depth: 500–1,500 meters (1,640–4,920 feet) Editor: Ted Blanco Writer: Megan Bassett Production team: Kyra Schlining, Susan von Thun, Nancy Jacobsen Stout Learn more: Creature feature: https://www.mbari.org/products/creature-feature/marrus-claudanielis/ The fish-eating siphonophore Erenna: https://youtu.be/Jp2qV4tI3sE There’s no such thing as a jellyfish: https://youtu.be/3HzFiQFFQYw Diet secrets of the rich and fathomous: https://youtu.be/TbGtPGFXEVc Find more Weird and Wonderful deep-sea animals on our Creature feature: mbari.co/34hlCzV Reference: Dunn, C. W.; Pugh, P. R.; Haddock, S. H. D. (2005). Marrus claudanielis, a new species of deep-sea physonect siphonophore (Siphonophora, Physonectae). Bulletin of Marine Science. 76 (3): 699-714. Follow MBARI on social media: Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/mbari_news/​​​ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MBARInews/​​​ Twitter: https://twitter.com/MBARI_News​​​ Tumblr: https://mbari-blog.tumblr.com​
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The Basic Math that Explains Why Atoms are Arranged Like They Are: Pauli Exclusion PrincipleElectrons are arranged in shells around an atomic nucleus. But why is this? Luckily there is is some basic mathematics that can give us a clue... Hi everyone, in this video I wanted to discuss the basic mathematics of the Pauli Exclusion Principle. This is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics that explains why electrons are arranged in shells (rather than all falling down into the same / lowest energy level). To begin with, we need to consider a pair of particles that are indistinguishable. Not just identical in every way (same mass, same charge, etc), but we cannot tell them apart. If we have a system with two particles labelled A and B, some time later we should not be able to tell which is A and which is B. If such particles exist, then the square modulus of their quantum wave function must be identical whether we find them in the orientation AB or BA. The reason for this is that the square modulus of the quantum wave function is something we can physically measure in real life. And if the value of this quantity changed depending on the orientation of the particles, then they would no longer be indistinguishable. We would be able to tell which orientation they were in. The square modulus being equal upon "particle exchange" leads to two very simple mathematical conditions for the wave function of our system. One condition is that the wave function must not change as the particles are switched. This is known as a symmetric wave function, and applies to bosons, as discussed in my Bose-Einstein Condensate video. The other condition is that the wave function becomes negative when the particles are switched. This is known as an antisymmetric wave function, and applies to fermions (such as the electrons we will discuss). For a system containing two or more fermions, we interestingly find that no two fermions can be in the same quantum state. We visualize this in the video with a simple description of a two-level, two-electron system. And this is the Pauli Exclusion Principle! A particle's quantum state can be described with a series of "quantum numbers". One of them is the principle quantum number (n), referring to which energy level the particle is in. Another is the spin quantum number (m_s), referring to whether the particle is found in the spin up or spin down state. There are a series of numbers that are needed in order to fully describe the particle's quantum state, and Pauli's Exclusion Principle says that no two particles can have all the same numbers - at least one number must be different. And this explains why electrons in atoms are arranged in shells where there is a "maximum" number of electrons that can be found in each shell - 2 for the first shell, 8 for the second shell, and so on. If electrons were bosons instead, all of them would fall to the lowest energy level. And this would not be good for the universe as we know it - chemistry would be very different, and therefore biology (and life) as we know it would probably not exist. Bra and ket notation video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=payp7simhBM&t=334s My Quantum Mechanics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLOlz9q28K2e4Yn2ZqbYI__dYqw5nQ9DST Many of you have asked about the stuff I use to make my videos, so I'm posting some affiliate links here! I make a small commission if you make a purchase through these links. A Quantum Physics Book I Enjoy: https://amzn.to/3sxLlgL My camera (Canon EOS M50): https://amzn.to/3lgq8FZ My Lens (Canon EF-M 22mm): https://amzn.to/3qMBvqD Microphone and Stand (Fifine): https://amzn.to/2OwyWvt Thanks so much for watching - please do check out my socials here: Instagram - @parthvlogs Patreon - patreon.com/parthg