How chaperones promote correct shapes of proteins even under denaturing stress conditions
Proteins are macromolecules synthesized under the control of DNA and perform almost all functions in our cells. However, they must fold into their unique three-dimensional structures to fulfill their biological activities. Protein folding is an error-prone process, and how it is accomplished successfully is a great question in cell biology, given that misfolded proteins are the primary cause of many neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. To ensure correct folding and to prevent misfolding, cells express various classes of proteins called molecular chaperones. Molecular chaperones are a protein class that assist proteins in reaching the correct three-dimensional structures and prevent misfolding. Impairment in molecular chaperones has been found to be relevant to neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. Understanding how molecular chaperones assist other proteins has great biological and medical importance.